Schizophrenia: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Whats Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is an incurable disease of the brain. It changes how a person thinks and acts, how he expresses emotions, how he understands reality.

Many people with schizophrenia - in society, at school, in the office, in family relationships - find it impossible to socialize. These patients are always scared and backward.

Schizophrenia cannot be completely cured, but it can be controlled with proper treatment.

When schizophrenia occurs, many people think that the patient has multiple personalities. This is a misconception.

Schizophrenia is a mental illness in which people do not understand what is true and what is imaginary. Sometimes the patient loses complete touch with reality.

The whole world seems to them confusing thoughts, pictures and words. A sudden change in a person's personality and behavior is called a psychotic episode. It is when you lose touch with reality.

The severity of schizophrenia varies from person to person. Some people have psychotic episodes once in a lifetime.

For some it may be several times and they may lead a fairly normal life between episodes. Others do not recover well after each episode and their illness may worsen.

At one time doctors divided schizophrenia into several subtypes:

* Paranoid: The patient feels that he is being abused or that others are watching him secretly.

* Disorganized: The patient looks confused.

* Catatonic: The patient is immobile or cannot speak.

* Undifferentiated schizophrenia: A branch in which any Paranoid, Disorganized and

 The characteristics of the catatonic subunit are not noticeable.

* Residual Schizophrenia: When the psychotic symptoms are reduced or no longer seen.

Scientists now think that the above subdivisions are not as accurate and useful as they used to be.

So they now only rely on the symptoms and the severity of the symptoms.

What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?

Patients with schizophrenia may have a number of symptoms. Their thoughts, actions, behaviors, and personalities may change, and they may have different uses at different times.

When the disease first occurs, the symptoms appear suddenly and become severe.

The common symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided into three categories - Positive Symptoms, Cognitive Symptoms and Negative Symptoms.

Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia:

Positive here does not mean "good". Rather, it refers to exaggerated thinking and behavior that becomes irrational. These are also sometimes called psychotic symptoms.

These symptoms are:


Delusions are strange beliefs that have nothing to do with reality. Although people with delusion are given factual information, their beliefs do not change. Some examples - A person with delusion may believe that other people are listening to his thoughts, or that people are putting wrong thoughts into his head, or that people are plotting against him.


The person affected by hallucination feels unreal things. They may see things that are not real, they may hear sounds, they may smell strange, or they may feel that something is touching a body even if it is not attached to the body.


The patient loses the physical strength to move from one place to another for a long time. Disorganized symptom is a type of positive symptom that reflects the person's inability to think and respond properly.

Here are some examples of disorganized symptoms:

* Use nonsense words and make sentences in a way that others do not understand

* Changing thoughts very quickly

* Unable to make a decision

* Writing things without extra money

* Fast forgetting or losing things

* Repetition of movements or gestures

* Not being able to understand everyday objects, sounds and feelings properly

Cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia:

Here are some examples of cognitive symptoms:

* Understanding information properly, not being able to work thoughtfully

* Not being able to pay attention

* Not being able to memorize any information and use it for any purpose

Negative symptoms of schizophrenia:

Negative does not mean "bad" here. Rather it refers to the absence of some common use in a person with schizophrenia. Here are some examples of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia:

* Absence of emotion or very limited range of emotions

* Do not mix with family and friends and do not participate in social activities

* Loss of energy

* Decreased speech

* Lack of inspiration

* Decreased interest in life

* Not taking care of the body

Causes of schizophrenia:

Scientists do not know the exact cause of schizophrenia. However, schizophrenia, like cancer and diabetes, has a biological basis.


Researchers have uncovered a number of factors that contribute to schizophrenia:

* Genetics:

If the parent has the disease, the child is more likely to have it.

* Brain Chemistry and Circuits:

People with this disease may have abnormal chemicals in their brain that can affect thinking and behavior.

* Abnormalities in the brain:

Studies show some abnormal structures in the brain of people with schizophrenia

Found. However, not all people with schizophrenia have this abnormality, and people who are not affected by the disease may also have this abnormality.

* Environmental factors:

The risk of getting schizophrenia increases due to viral infections, spending time around toxins, highly stressful situations, etc. Symptoms of schizophrenia are more likely to occur when the body goes through hormonal or physical changes - such as adolescence.

Who has schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia can affect any person. It is found everywhere in the world, among people of all races and cultures. It happens equally to both men and women.

Although it can occur in all ages, the symptoms of schizophrenia usually first appear in adolescents in men or in the age group of 20-22 years and in women in the age group of 25-35 years.

If schizophrenia occurs at a young age then it can take a fatal shape with age. It can affect children over 5 years of age. However, it is very unlikely to happen before adolescence.

How is schizophrenia diagnosed?

If symptoms of schizophrenia are seen, the doctor will know the complete medical history of the patient and may perform some physical examinations.

Although there are no laboratory tests specifically to diagnose schizophrenia, doctors will perform a variety of tests. Blood tests and brain imaging studies will try to find out if the symptoms are due to any other reason.

If the doctor does not find any other reason for the symptoms of schizophrenia, he will refer the patient to a psychiatrist or psychologist. Psychiatrists and psychologists try to understand the patient's mental state through specially designed interviews. If the patient has had symptoms of schizophrenia for at least 6 months then he is considered to have schizophrenia.

How is schizophrenia treated?

The treatment of this disease is aimed at reducing the symptoms and the possibility of new psychotic episodes. The following steps may be taken to treat schizophrenia:


A drug called antipsychotics is commonly used to treat schizophrenia. It does not cure schizophrenia. Rather it reduces the most painful symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations and inability to think.


Different symptoms of schizophrenia can be cured by different psychiatric treatments. Patients can also learn to control their symptoms through psychotherapy.


Many schizophrenia patients do not need to be hospitalized. However, those who can harm themselves or others or cannot take care of themselves at home may be hospitalized.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT):

In this procedure, electrodes are inserted into the patient's head with anesthesia while sleeping and a small shock of current is given. This is usually done 2-3 times a week for a few weeks. It improves the patient's mood and thinking.

Are patients with schizophrenia dangerous?

In many stories and movies, patients with this disease are portrayed as violent. This is not usually true. Most patients are not violent and they prefer to be alone. In some cases patients can do dangerous work. But they usually do it out of fear.

Is schizophrenia preventable?

Doctors do not know any way to prevent this disease. However, if it is caught early, its severity can be greatly reduced.

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post