HIV and AIDS

Learn About HIV and AIDS

HIV and AIDS
HIV and AIDS
AIDS (full form: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) or HIV; Full form: A set of symptoms caused by a virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which reduces the immunity of the human body. As a result, an AIDS patient can easily contract any infectious disease, which can ultimately lead to his death.


HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) infection does not always lead to AIDS. Initially, flu-like symptoms may be seen in some cases. After that, there are no symptoms for many days. HIV As the virus attack increases, the body's immune system weakens, and the affected person may suffer from common infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, as well as opportunistic infections and tumors, which only occur in people whose immune system (or immune system) arrangement) does not work. HIV This stage of infection is called AIDS. During this stage, the patient often loses weight unintentionally and excessively.


Since once infectious HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) has not yet been able to be completely eliminated once it enters the body, so HIV. AIDS is almost inevitable if infected. However, if it takes an average of ten years to reach the stage of AIDS without treatment, it can be delayed by a few more years with treatment. But the combination drug treatment for AIDS called "HAART" (HAART) is very expensive.


As of 2016, about 36.7 million people worldwide were infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and 1 million people died due to AIDS that year. However, the number of new HIV infections in 2016 was 3 lakh less than in 2015. Most AIDS patients live in sub-Saharan Africa. Since the disease was identified in the early 1980s until 2017, a total of approximately 3.5 million people have died of AIDS worldwide. AIDS is now considered an epidemic disease, which exists across a large area of ​​the world and is actively spreading. The HIV virus probably originated in West-Central Africa in the late 19th or early 20th century. The disease was first identified by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981, followed by the HIV virus as the cause of the disease in the early 1980s. According to a 2017 survey by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Government), HIV in the United States 70 percent of the victims are gay and bisexual men.


HIV How (human immunodeficiency virus) is spread

HIV By taking the blood of a person infected with the virus, or by using an injection syringe or needle used by him.

HIV A pregnant mother infected with the virus is also likely to infect her baby, which may occur late in pregnancy or during delivery. However, this risk can be reduced somewhat by using the drug zidovudine, and by doing so the mother's breast milk can also be given to the baby (since babies born in poor households are more likely to die if not breastfed).


HIV Having unprotected sex (without using a condom) with someone infected with the virus.

In fact, most bodily fluids contain HIV. is eliminated. However, because of the envelope (envelop) of love, HIV. Very fragile. So HIV Does not live long outside the body. For this reason, if blood or sexual secretions do not enter the body, HIV can spread. Chances of infection are very low. Only touching, eating together, even wearing the same clothes, or being bitten by a mosquito can sometimes spread HIV. do not spread So HIV The infection is not contagious.


AIDS is a terrible disease. In 1981, the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) of the United States identified this disease for the first time. The CDC became alarmed when two rare diseases, Pneumocystis carinii and Kaposi's sarcoma, increased dramatically. Finally, in 1984, scientists from France and the United States identified the virus of this epidemic disease. French scientists named it Lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) meaning "lymphatic gland disease-associated virus". And the Americans named it Human T-cell Lymphotropic virus, strain III (HTLV III), meaning "human T-cell lymph node-oriented virus". In 1986, this virus was renamed as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The HIV virus attacks the T-helper cells in the human body, which are essential for the body's immune system.


AIDS is now global. According to the 2007 census, an estimated 33.2 million people worldwide died of AIDS, of which 330,000 were children. Three-quarters of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan and economically disadvantaged regions of Africa.


Most patients infected with the HIV virus carry the disease without any symptoms. However, sometimes after 6 to 7 weeks of being infected with this virus, some non-specific symptoms may appear such as fever, sore throat, headache, swollen lymph nodes (enlarged lymph nodes), etc. These symptoms resolve without treatment, leaving the patient unaware of the virus. The HIV virus can live silently in the human body for up to 10 years without any symptoms.


There is still no cure for AIDS. Researchers have discovered many medicines so far. The first class of drugs is called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which slow down the transmission of the HIV virus. The second class of drugs is called protease inhibitors (Protease inhibitors) which block the replication of the HIV virus. Since only one class of medicine alone is not effective in the body, combination medicine is given. This practice is called heart or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy). Although HAART does not cure AIDS, it plays an important role in reducing the number of deaths in AIDS patients.


AIDS diagnosis

HIV/AIDS is diagnosed through laboratory tests and then staged based on the presence of specific signs or symptoms. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends HIV screening for all people ages 15 to 65, including all pregnant women.108 Furthermore, testing is recommended for people at high risk, including anyone with a sexually transmitted infection, which accounts for about one-third of HIV carriers worldwide. Only discover that they have been infected in the advanced stages of the disease when AIDS or severe immunity is revealed.


Misconceptions about AIDS

There are many misconceptions about HIV and AIDS. The three most common misconceptions are, 1) AIDS can be spread through casual contact, 2) having sex with a virgin can get rid of AIDS, 3) and HIV can only be transmitted to homosexual men and drug users. In 2014, some of the British public incorrectly thought that kissing (16%), sharing a glass (5%) spitting (16%), using public toilet seats (4%), and coughing or sneezing ( 5%) may lead to AIDS infection. Anal sex between two gay men can lead to HIV transmission, and open discussion of HIV and homosexuality in schools will increase AIDS rates.


A small group of individuals continues to dispute the link between HIV and AIDS, the existence of HIV itself, or the validity of HIV testing and treatment. These claims, considered AIDS denialism, have been rejected after testing by the scientific community. However, they have had a significant political impact, particularly in South Africa where civil servants' denial of AIDS (1999–2005) was responsible for the country's ineffective response to the AIDS epidemic and for hundreds of millions of avoidable deaths and HIV infections.


Many conspiracy theories suggest that HIV was deliberately created by scientists. Operation Infection was an active move by the Soviet Union worldwide in which the United States was said to have created HIV/AIDS. Surveys show that many people still believe - and continue to believe - such claims. American health expert Matthew Hanley published a report titled The Catholic Church and the Global AIDS Crisis. There he emphasized fidelity within the marital relationship and sexual intimacy beyond it. He thinks that some cultural changes are necessary for this.


Religion and AIDS

The discussion of religion and AIDS has become highly controversial in the past 20 years, initially with some religious authorities opposing the use of condoms. Emphasizing religious methods to prevent the spread of AIDS, some religious organizations claim that prayer can prevent HIV/AIDS. In 2011, the BBC reported that some churches in London were claiming that the prayer would cure AIDS, and the Hackney-based Center for the Study of Sexual Health and HIV reported that most people stopped taking the drug, relying on their clergy's advice. Many died. Synagogues and churches of all nations promoted "anointing water" ads promoting God's healing, though the group denied advising people to stop taking the medicine.


Signs and symptoms of AIDS

Acute infection

The initial period after contracting HIV is called acute HIV, early HIV, or acute retroviral syndrome. Many people develop an influenza-like or mononucleosis-like illness 2-4 weeks after exposure, while others have no significant symptoms. Symptoms occur in 40-90% of cases and most commonly include fever, enlarged tender lymph nodes, sore throat, rash, headache, fatigue, and/or oral and genital sores. The rash seen in 20-50% of cases is present in the trunk and is classical, classical class Some people also develop opportunistic infections at this stage 25 Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as vomiting or diarrhea may occur 2 Peripheral neuropathy or neurological symptoms of Gillen–Barry syndrome also occurs 2 Symptoms The duration varies but is usually one or two weeks.


Because of their unique character, these symptoms are often not recognized as symptoms of HIV infection. Many common infectious diseases with overlapping symptoms are commonly misdiagnosed, even when seen by family doctors or hospitals. Therefore, it is recommended that HIV should be considered in people with unexplained fever who may have risk factors for infection. 

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